There are two categories of justices of the peace in Québec: administrative justices of the peace and presiding justices of the peace.
Administrative justices of the peace are appointed by the Minister of Justice and hold their positions during pleasure (they can be removed at the Minister's discretion). They may be assigned various powers and functions. They may be given jurisdiction throughout all of Québec or only in certain judicial districts or territories, and they may perform their functions in the Court of Québec, the Superior Court, or in a municipal court.
Presiding justices of the peace are part of the judicial system. They are appointed for life (during good behaviour). They are under the supervision of the Chief Judge of the Court of Québec and under the authority of the Conseil de la magistrature, Québec's judicial council, as regards ethics and conduct. They have jurisdiction in all of Québec and may exercise the range of functions and powers listed in Schedule V of the Courts of Justice Act .