The provisions of the Act to amend the Civil Code and other legislative provisions as regards adoption and the disclosure of information came into force in their entirety on June 16, 2018. The Act aims to meet the present-day realities of Québec families and Aboriginal communities.

Adoption creates a bond of filiation between a child and his or her adoptive parent or parents, on the basis of a legal document.

Unlike suppletive tutorship, adoption replaces the bond that existed between the child and his or biological parents. In addition, it terminates their rights and obligations towards their child.

Provided certain conditions are met, you can adopt a child

You also have the right to adopt the child of your spouse

Aboriginal customary adoption

Aboriginals have the right to adopt a child in accordance with their custom. This is known as "Aboriginal customary adoption". It breaks the bond of filiation between the child and his or her biological parents, but some of the parents' rights and obligations may subsist, such as the obligation of support.

Aboriginal customary adoption must be attested by a competent Aboriginal authority. Its role is to

  • verify that the child's rights and interest are respected;
  • ensure that the biological parents, the adoptive parents and the adopted child, if old enough to understand, consent to the adoption;
  • issue an Aboriginal customary adoption certificate, which the adoptive parents must give to the registrar of civil status to amend the child's act of birth.

Adoption coutumière autochtone

Les Autochtones ont le droit d’adopter un enfant dans le respect de leurs coutumes. C’est ce que l’on appelle l’adoption coutumière autochtone. Cette forme d’adoption rompt le lien de filiation entre l’enfant et ses parents biologiques, mais elle peut conserver certains des droits et des obligations des parents, comme l’obligation alimentaire.

L’adoption coutumière autochtone doit être attestée par une autorité autochtone compétente. Cette dernière a notamment pour rôle de :

  • vérifier si l’intérêt et les droits de l’enfant sont respectés;
  • s’assurer que les parents biologiques, les parents adoptifs et l’adopté en âge de comprendre consentent à l’adoption;
  • délivrer un certificat d’adoption coutumière autochtone, que les parents adoptifs doivent fournir au Directeur de l’état civil pour modifier l’acte de naissance de leur enfant.
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